Augmented Reality in Vehicles


Having the ability to obtain and process important information while driving a vehicle is critical to safety. Most vehicles today are equipped with a global positioning system (GPS) to help make navigation easier. Technology such as a heads-up display (HUD) can display the GPS data on the windshield so that the driver can keep their eyes on the road.

This paper explores the innovation of expanding on current technology to build an augmented reality (AR) system to help improve driver and pedestrian safety in and around the roadways. Research has already been performed to combine many different technologies to make driving safer, but there are still accidents the cost of human lives every year. The goal of this innovation is to provide crucial information to the driver as it is needed so that the number of accidents can be reduced.


Systems that utilized deep learning, or machine learning, are already in use to recognize and process information quicker than humans (Abdi & Meddeb, 2018). Despite the advancements, over the last several years in computing power, we are still a way off from a fully autonomous vehicle. The deep learning techniques could be used in an AR system to help relay critical information to a driver (Abdi & Meddeb, 2018). Sensors such as ultrasonic and night vision could be used to relay information to the driver iv an AR system, so they are aware of unseen issues ahead. Providing crucial information to the driver when conditions are not ideal can help avoid accidents while on the road.

Improving visibility is the first step in making vehicles safer. Systems such as automatic braking have already been invented and are in use in cars today. AR systems could be used to help predict if somebody was going to step into the roadway or anticipate if a car was going to make a lane change or stop suddenly. The idea is not to create a fully autonomous vehicle, but rather have the computer systems provide critical information to the driver so they are able to make the decision.

One of the main decisions that need to be made when driving revolves around navigation and the majority of drivers today use a GPS to help make those decisions. An AR system could enhance the navigation experience for drivers. Drivers would be able to see information such as which exit to take overplayed on the roadway giving the driver clear indication on how to navigate. This would help also reduce the risk of accidents due to inattentive driving while looking at a GPS or a map.

However, there are risks to utilizing an AR system. Accidents have happened while people have been using AR in the past. While playing Pokémon Go, a young man fell onto an electric railroad track and obtained serious injury throughout his body (Kate Gemma, Kai Yuen, & Khan, 2018). Ultimately he required amputation of one of his legs due to the injury (Kate Gemma et al., 2018). Other causes of injury have also been reported over the years. Cases such as this demonstrate that technology can be distracting when it is not used properly. An AR vehicle system would need to be thoroughly tested to make sure it would not be considered distracting to the driver.


The overall goal of having an AR system in a vehicle is to improve safety for the occupants of the vehicle and pedestrians alike. By providing the driver with real-time information about the surrounding conditions, such as a pedestrian walking into the roadway, the driver would have more time to react and avoid the accident. A secondary goal of the AR system is to aid in navigation. Navigating an unfamiliar city can be hazardous to the driver and the people around them. An AR system could be used to overlay the correct directions over the real-world streets the driver is able to see out of the windshield.

Supporting forces

One supporting force is the current state of the liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) display technology. In the past few years, LCoS panels have achieved a resolution of 4K2K, and research is underway for 8K4K resolution panels (Huang, Engle, Chen, & Wu, 2018). The panels also have a sub-millisecond response time for intensity modulation (Huang et al., 2018). By increasing the resolution of the panels, an AR system would appear more realistic and aid in user adoption.

Along with the LCoS panels, technology has increased around the various types of sensors that can be added to vehicles. New types of visual sensors have been developed that can be used to aid an AR system in correctly detecting obstacles (Abdi & Meddeb, 2018). The idea of merging technology with the human driver is being referred to as “cooperative driving” (Abdi & Meddeb, 2018). Having a cooperative driving system can be seen as a pathway to fully-autonomies driving vehicles.

Challenging forces

One challenging force would be user acceptance of an AR system within a vehicle. Older drivers could easily read and interpret information for a standard vehicle dashboard but demonstrated difficulty when needing to read a dashboard and follow navigation directions (Kim & Dey, 2016). Younger drivers did not exhibit the same difficulty when asked to perform similar tasks (Kim & Dey, 2016). However, the majority of the safety advantages will come from older drivers utilizing an AR system to help avoid accidents.


Like most research dealing with new technology, there are a lot of unanswered questions. To help answer these questions, experts in both the technology and phycology of humans should be consulted to understand better the feasibility of an AR system being adopted. After examining different types of methods, it was determined to use the Delphi method would be suitable to gain insight from various experts (Haughey, nd). The Delphi method is used to gather the thoughts on a question of different experts anonymously (Haughey, nd). These thoughts are collected, combined, and then share back with the group of experts (Haughey, nd). This process is repeated until a consensus is reached by the various experts to answer the proposed question (Haughey, nd).

The Delphi method was selected because it can be used over an extended period of time and does not require the experts to be in the same physical space. Without a time constraint, experts have the ability to research and think about their answers to the proposed question. By not requiring people to be in the same physical location, experts from around would be able to participate in the process. These factors should increase the accuracy of the predictions made by experts.


Abdi, L., & Meddeb, A. (2018). Driver information system: A combination of augmented reality, deep learning and vehicular Ad-hoc networks. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 77(12), 14673-14703. doi:10.1007/s11042-017-5054-6

Haughey, D. (nd). DELPHI TECHNIQUE A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE. Retrieved from

Huang, Y., Engle, L., Chen, R., & Wu, S.-T. (2018). Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon for Augmented Reality Displays. Applied Sciences, 8(12). doi:

Kate Gemma, R., Kai Yuen, W., & Khan, M. (2018). Augmented reality game-related injury. BMJ Case Reports, 11(1). doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-224012

Kim, S., & Dey, A. K. (2016). Augmenting human senses to improve the user experience in cars: applying augmented reality and haptics approaches to reduce cognitive distances. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75(16), 9587-9607. doi:10.1007/s11042-015-2712-4

Innovations, good & bad

Being successful in business is always a good thing, but what happens when plans do not work out as you intend? In this post, we will look at a startup company that had a bit of bad luck and see what we can learn from their mistakes. We will also examine an innovation that has already started to change the way we play and see how companies are working to integrate it into our daily lives.

When Plans Go Wrong

Humans are known to be shortsighted and make mistakes that look obvious in retrospect (Hutchinson, 2012). Since humans run organizations, there are many reasons they may be unsuccessful. Eran Hammer-Lahav had an idea to create a micro-blogging service named Nouncer back in 2006 (Hammer, 2008). In a post, Hammer (2008) himself recounts some of the main issues as to why the Nouncer product failed. Amongst the financial difficulties and problems developing a team, Hammer was late getting Nouncer to market (Hammer, 2008).

Services such as Twitter were launched and became successful while Nouncer was still being developed (Hammer, 2008). Hammer shifted his approach from a customer-facing application to developing more of the backend and infrastructure systems (Hammer, 2008). Hammer (2008) talks about creating the JabAbout application for Facebook which he considered a distraction from the Nouncer project. Although the JabAbout project did not cause the downfall of Nouncer, Hammer (2008) discusses the need to stay focused on your goal and not get distracted by side projects.

Impact Example

Examples of innovations that have had an impact on our life’s in recent years are virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). Using VR has become a bit more commonplace today with a multitude of applications and video games using the technology. However, the innovation of AR has not been fully integrated into society. Games such as Ingress and Pokemon Go have already shown the masses how AR can be used through a mobile application (Clark, 2019). Companies like North are working to create glasses that will utilize AR for productivity (Ochanji, 2020).

AR can have a significant impact on how we interact with our technology throughout our daily routines. Utilizing AR glasses that will keep us informed about our schedule and the weather (Ochanji, 2020) would help keep us organized, but would also have impacts that need to be considered. Things such as how to interact with the world around us and other humans could be impacted, in both a positive and negative way. Much like VR, if AR consumes all the user’s senses at once, they could become isolated from others. This could be seen as a negative impact when using technology.

On the other side, companies are working to utilize AR in areas such as tourism to help enhance the end-user experience (Kečkeš & Tomičić, 2017). Forces such as technology requirements play a key role in how quickly AR is being adopted (Kečkeš & Tomičić, 2017). Even when the correct technology becomes plentiful, people will still need to be convinced to use AR. Like most technology, newer generations are quick to adopt it but are equally quick to dismiss it if they do not find it useful. Products like Focal from North are working to overcome that issue by seamlessly integrating the technology into our daily lives (Ochanji, 2020).

In summary, games like Pokemon Go has shown us the potential of AR and how it can be used on mobile devices for entertainment (Clark, 2019). Now companies like North are working hard to integrate AR into our daily lives for productivity purposes (Ochanji, 2020). Innovations are important to the future and will help shape the way we live and play. As long as startup companies learn from the mistakes made by Hammer and others, innovations should continue to change the world.


Clark, P. (2019). ‘Pokemon Go’ Creator on Augmented Reality’s Massive Potential. Retrieved from

Hammer, E. (2008). The Last AnNounce(r)ment. Retrieved from

Hutchinson, A. (2012) Monitor Group: A Failure of Scenario Planning. Retrieved from

Kečkeš, A. L., & Tomičić, I. (2017). Augmented Reality in Tourism – Research and Applications Overview. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 15(2), 157-168. doi:10.7906/indecs.15.2.5

Ochanji, S. (2020). Next Versions of North Focals Look Even More Like Normal Glasses. Retieved from


The creating of innovation is not always planed. Normally, one does not simply get out of bed in the morning and exclaim, “I will be great today.” Like other things, innovations can happen by accident. Over the years, there have been many innovations that were achieved through some type of accident. In this post, we will look at how an error, exaptation, and serendipitous event could lead to innovation.

One way is by trial and error. Errors are simply a mistake or output from the trial that is not expected. Not all errors are bad. Some errors can lead down a different path that you might not have been thinking before you made a mistake. A good example of an error is when Mr. Goodyear accidentally dropped a vat of his liquid rubber onto a hot stove causing it to become a hard leather-like material (Orf, 2013).

Another way an innovation may come about is through exaptation. Exaptation is using older ideas or parts in a new implementation of the product (Tam, 2018). Many of the evolutionary adaptations can be attributed to exaptation (Tam, 2018). Technology also follows a similar evolutionary process when it comes to using tried and true ideas in new technology to come up with a new product.

We should also look at how serendipity can play a role in innovations. A serendipitous event can be thought of as a “happy accident” or making a discovery of something you were not trying to discover (Scofield, 2011). A good example of this is how Play-Doh came to be. Play-Doh was first invented as a cleaning product for wallpaper until it was found to be a more enjoyable children’s toy (Biddle, 2012).

An innovation that has always caught my eye was how the microwave oven came about. A scientist by the name of Percy Spencer was working for the Raytheon Corporation in 1945 (Cooper, 2015). While working in a lab with a radar device, Spencer observed that a chocolate bar in his pocket was being melted (Cooper, 2015). It would not be accurate to say that Spencer created an error, but rather had a serendipitous event, or a “happy accident.” Spencer, when on to conduct various experiments, even placing popcorn kernels inside a paper bag to see if they would pop correctly (Cooper, 2015).

In summary, it is important to keep in mind that not all mistakes are bad. As we have seen throughout this post, having an accident during an experiment could lead to a new type of innovation. It is important to keep an open mind when examining the results. You never know what new and improved innovation you might have just discovered.


Biddle, S. (2012). The 10 Most (accidental) inventions of all time. Gizmodo. Retrieved from

Cooper, K. (2015). Microlessons: Toward a History of Information-Age Cuisine. Technology and Culture, 56(3), 579-609.

Orf, D. (2013). 10 Awesome Accidental Discoveries. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved from

Scofield, D. (2011). Serendipitous Innovation. Forbes. Retrieved from

Tam, M. (2018). Patterns of Innovation: How Exaptation Can Lead to Creative Breakthroughs. Medium. Retrieved from

Issues in the Newspaper Industry

This paper will look at the issues faced by the newspaper industry in the past few decades and how the industry dealt with those challenges. This paper will also examine how the newspaper industry could have performed scenario planning more successfully. We will look at some of the failures and also how the newspaper industry has survived through the changes over the last several decades.

It was evident in the 1990s that print media was in trouble, with the news being broadcast 24 hours a day on most major cable networks (Wade, 2012). News consumers no longer needed to wait for the newspaper to be printed and delivered; they could simply tune in on their televisions. It wasn’t until the mid-2000s that newspaper companies began scenario planning to help determine how to save the failing physical printed media industry (Wade, 2012). The rise of digital media significantly impacted how people received and consumed news on a daily basis. Digital media put pressure on the physical printed media industry to keep up with the changing times, thus the need for scenario planning (Wade, 2012).

Scenario planning is a way for companies or industries to speculate and create different pictures of what the future might look like (Hiemstra, 2012). The scenarios being created should be plausible, along with being based on current knowledge or speculation of what future events are likely to take place (Hiemstra, 2012). In order to conduct scenario planning, a workshop was conducted in 2008 In which major newspaper companies participated in the exercise to determine what the business landscape would look like by 2020 (Wade, 2012).

An important step in scenario planning is to create a scenario cross. A scenario cross consists of two pairs of opposite outcomes, such that both outcomes are plausible, but could not both come true at the same time (Wade, 2012). In the case of the newspaper workshop, the scenario cross consisted of pairings between Disruptive media dominates, and Traditional media dominates, along with Mass audience and Targeted audiences (Wade, 2012). The scenario cross can be seen in figure 1. This scenario cross was used to help guide the workshop with their scenario planning (Wade, 2012).

Figure 1 – Scenario cross (Wade, 2012, p. 72)

The workshop produced many different possible views of the future, along with some predictions (Wade, 2012). In 2008 the group correctly predicted that a mobile device would take the place of printed media, unfortunately, it happened sooner than anticipated (Wade, 2012). In 2010 Apple released the iPad, which dramatically changed the way people consumed news on a daily basis (Wade, 2012). Even though the group correctly predicted the creation of such a device, they were not prepared for the impact for another 10 years.

It is important to understand that the newspaper industry had three main sources of revenue, which are paid subscriptions, newsstand sales, and advertising (Wade, 2012). With the decline of sales, there was a sharp decrease in advertising companies willing to invest in printed media (Banku, Valdemara, Riga, & Latvia, 2016). With the decline of income from advertisers, newspapers began cutting back on spending which had a ripple effect on pulp mills needing to lay off employees (Banku et al., 2016).

The physical printing of newspapers did not only decrease within the United States but also in Europe. Since the year 2000, There has been a steady decrease in the demand for paper for printing purposes from 46 million tons to 29 million tons by the year 2015 (Banku et al., 2016). In 1998, European advertising companies spent 57% of their budget in the printed media space and by 2014, it was down to 9% (Banku et al., 2016).

Over the year’s newspaper companies have begun to realize that the paper portion of the newspaper is less important than the news (Wade, 2012). News outlets had started to change their thinking to worry less about controlling the medium of delivery (the paper) and focus on the content they are delivering (the news) (Wade, 2012). This shift in thinking has helped save the newspaper industry.

Along with focusing more on their content, newspapers, now referred to as news outlets, also focus on appealing to the global audience, they could now reach over the Internet. It is worth noting that not all printed newspapers are gone. Some printed newspapers are created to service a specific niche of consumers (van der Burg & Van den Bulck, 2017). These niche groups could be from a specific industry, speak a nonstandard language in a foreign country, or be a subculture (van der Burg & Van den Bulck, 2017).  


Banku, A., Valdemara, K., Riga, & Latvia. (2016). Business scenario planning for declining industry.  Retrieved from

Hiemstra, G. (2012). Scenario planning.  Retrieved from

van der Burg, M., & Van den Bulck, H. (2017). Why are traditional newspaper publishers still surviving in the digital era? The impact of long-term trends on the Flemish newspaper industry’s financing, 1990–2014. Journal of Media Business Studies, 14(2), 82-115. doi:10.1080/16522354.2017.1290024

Wade, W. (2012). Chapter 3 – case studies: the real world Scenario Planning (pp. 68 – 81). Location: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


In this post, we will be looking at what socio-technical plans are and how they can be implemented in different situations to solve a complex problem. Throughout this post, we will examine a case study to see how a socio-technical plan can be used to implement laptops to a school in Brazil. We will also look at and evaluate the effectiveness of the socio-technical plan used. Before we get into the case study, we will begin by defining what a socio-technical plan is.

The team socio-technical was created by researchers at the Tavistock Institute in England while looking into ways to rehabilitate soldiers from World War II (Sawyer & Mohammad Hossein, 2013). The term socio-technical can be defined as a way of linking society and technology together (Fischer & Herrmann). In some cases, this can mean merging a cutler with a technology that they would not normally have access to. The case study that we will be looking at deals with using a socio-technical plan to incorporate the use of laptops with a public school within Campinas, in São Paulo, Brazil (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013).

In 2010, the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) organization donated 520 laptops to the Padre Emílio Miotti School (Miotti), a public school in Brazil (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). Unfortunately, Miotti school has a population of 530 individuals, which includes teachers and students (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). Hayashi and Baranauskas (2013) set out to conduct a study on how the laptops (a technical aspect) were incorporated into the Miotti school (a culture that did not previously have access to this technology) (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013).

It was found that there were both pros and cons when it came time to integrate the laptops into Miotti. One main advantage for the students was the way the laptops opened educational doors to areas they would not normally be able to access (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). By integrating laptops into the student’s cutler, the student could explore ideas that they might not have considered before (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). Another added benefit was that most of the students were able to take a laptop home allowing them to share the experience with their family members, thus expanding the cultural impact of the technology (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013).

However, not all students were able to take a laptop home. One major con was both the lack of laptops for a one-to-one distribution, and the threat that a laptop would be stolen from students living in some areas of they were taken home (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). This meant that not all students would be able to participate in homework activities, such as taking photos of nutritional facts on food items around their homes (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). Another major drawback was the logistics around charging, storing, and transporting the laptops each day (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013).

Even though there were some cons associated with the laptop program at Miotti, the program was deemed an overall success (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). By using a socio-technical plan, students at the Miotti school were able to utilize technology that they would normally not have access to in order to increase their education (Hayashi & Baranauskas, 2013). By using a socio-technical plan that introduced laptops at the Miotti school, individuals within a cutler were given the opportunity to explore new ideas and expand their knowledge.


Fischer, G., & Herrmann, T. Socio-Technical Systems – A Meta-Design Perspective.  Retrieved from

Hayashi, E. C. S., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2013). Affectibility in educational technologies: A socio-technical perspective for design. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(1), 57-58.

Sawyer, S., & Mohammad Hossein, J. (2013). Sociotechnical approaches to the study of information systems.  Retrieved from